After competing this page, you should be able to:
It's easy to get the idea the you can get good information freely from the Internet. However, you'll usually find that, it it's truly quality information, someone has paid for it. In the case of government websites, it might be paid for by your taxes. In the case of high quality medical information, it might be paid for by generous grants from philanthropic organizations. In the case of the library's databases, it's your tuition dollars that pay several hundred thousand dollars per year for access to journals. Sometimes organizations provide information that's paid for by their membership dues.
The kind of superficial information that's usually found on ".com" websites is actually advertising for the sponsored product or service. It's usually biased in favor of whatever is being sold. This information will not add to your credibility as a writer.
In addition to the reasons given in the "Why We Cite" video, it is in fact illegal to take copyrighted information without properly citing it or getting permission. Copyright laws apply to any source of information, music, journals, videos, photographs, illustrations, etc. Taking information without citing it is plagiarism. Aside from being dishonest, plagiarism carries harsh penalties.
As an example of the cost of information, it may surprise you to know what the library, through your tuition, pays for journal subscriptions. You can get an idea of some of the expenses of criminal justice journals by looking at the Literature of Criminal Justice webpage.
You're aware there is a vast amount of information available on the Internet. And it's tempting to think you can find anything you want with a Google search. By now, however, you should be aware that much of that information is not as useful for true research as the people who sell computers would like you to think. Quality information is expensive and its producers cannot afford to give it away.
The Internet gives you access to a vast amount of information, but you will probably be surprised to learn that you have free access to only 1% of the information that the Internet hosts. The remaining 99% is sometimes referred to as the Deep Web (or Invisible Web or Hidden Web) and it is not indexed by search engines such as Google.
The Deep Web includes the sites that require payment before allowing internet users access. It includes data stored by research facilities, governments, legal as well as illegal businesses, along with vast amounts of information not intended for public viewing. Quality information is expensive, and the library pays more than $300,000 per year to provide you access to the databases you've been using in this course. The expression, "You get what you pay for." has never been truer than it is for the Internet.
Nevertheless, it would be senseless to ignore the quality information that you can access via the Internet. Advanced Google searching techniques can save you lots of time and help you find exactly what you're looking for.
Note: Many sources have APA citation formats for their online versions (e.g., online newspapers, dictionaries and encyclopedias). Check out our other guides or the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) first to see if there is a citation for a specific source type in an online format.
Author, F.M. (Year, Month Date of publication). Article title. Retrieved from URL
Note: Only include the retrieval date if the content is likely to change over time (such as wikis). If necessary, include the retrieval month date, year, (in that order) between “Retrieved” and “from URL” in the last segment of the citation.
Note: When a website does not have an article title, replace it in the citation with the website title.
Limer, E. (2013, October 1). Heck yes! The first free wireless plan is finally here. Retrieved from http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597
From: How to cite a website in APA - EasyBib blog. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.easybib.com/guides/citation-guides/apa-format/how-to-cite-a-website-apa/
Information possesses several dimensions of value, including as a commodity, as a means of education, as a means to influence, and as a means of negotiating and understanding the world. Legal and socioeconomic interests influence information production and dissemination.
The value of information is manifested in various contexts, including publishing practices, access to information, the commodification of personal information, and intellectual property laws. The novice learner may struggle to understand the diverse values of information in an environment where “free” information and related services are plentiful and the concept of intellectual property is first encountered through rules of citation or warnings about plagiarism and copyright law. As creators and users of information, experts understand their rights and responsibilities when participating in a community of scholarship. Experts understand that value may be wielded by powerful interests in ways that marginalize certain voices. However, value may also be leveraged by individuals and organizations to effect change and for civic, economic, social, or personal gains. Experts also understand that the individual is responsible for making deliberate and informed choices about when to comply with and when to contest current legal and socioeconomic practices concerning the value of information.
Association of College and Research Libraries. (2016, January 11). Framework for information literacy for higher education. Retrieved http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/issues/infolit/Framework_ILHE.pdf
|1.||Exact Phrase||"use quotation marks"|
|2.||Exclude a Word||use a dash (-)|
|3.||Missing Words||use an asterisk (*)|
|4.||Search within a Domain||site: URL|
|5||Search a Domain Extension||site:.gov [.edu, .com, etc.]|
|6.||Related Websites||related: URL|
|7.||File Type||filetype: pdf|
Drag and drop these elements of a bibliographic citation to their appropriate category below.Bradshaw. B. (2010, Jan. 11). Answering criticism of explosive detection machines and K-9s. Retrieved from: https://www.ploiceone.com/K-9/articles/1988568-Answering-criticism-of-explosive-detection-machines-and-K-9s/
UNC [University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill] Writing Center (Producer). (2012, April 24). Why we cite [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mkn4SyhjylM
It is illegal to just take information from most sources. That includes the Internet.
Watch this video to get an overview:
1. Find websites with information on "through the wall radar".
2. Find websites about "through the wall radar," but exclude all the pages that contain the word book.
3. Find these websites for which you are missing a word: surveillance and [missing word] missions.
4. Find a government website that discusses "through the wall radar."
5. Find a PowerPoint presentation about body armor on a government website.
6. Find a pdf on a government website that discusses traffic accidents in 2015.
7. Find a chart of the consumer price index for the United States.