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Emerging Technology in Criminal Justice

Restraint Systems

 A variety of approaches are used to restrain prisoners in differing situations, including metal handcuffs and ankle shackles (and combinations of the two), nonmetallic handcuffs, belt/handcuff combinations, and belts with built-in stun technology.
Police, Cop, Police Uniforms, Police Uniform, Guard

Required Reading

  1. Introduction:
    1. Self-Defense. (2010). In D. Batten (Ed.), Gale Encyclopedia of American Law (3rd ed., Vol. 9, pp. 97-98). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from
  2. Resources:
    1. Reay, D. T. (1996). Suspect restraint and sudden death. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 65(5), 22.
    2. Kleinig, J. (2014). Legitimate and illegitimate uses of police Force. Criminal Justice Ethics, 33(2), 83-103. doi:10.1080/0731129X.2014.941539
    3. Connor, G. (2008). Handcuffing: Practical procedures and tactical tips. American Jails, 22(4), 65-66.

Recommended Reading

Additional Resources