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Emerging Technology in Criminal Justice

Less Than Lethal Weapons

Many tools have been developed over the years to help officers control or arrest individuals without having to use deadly force. Such tools include a variety of batons or nightsticks, rubber bullet/beanbag projectiles, and various chemical agents (such as pepper spray and tear gas) and can play a vital role in effectively resolving critical incidents (see section II). Water Cannon, Police, Frankfurt, Demonstration

Required Reading

Less than Lethal Weapons

  1. Introduction:
    1. Less-lethal Weapons Technology. (2005). In K. L. Lerner & B. W. Lerner (Eds.), World of Forensic Science (Vol. 1, pp. 416-417). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from
  2. Resources
    1. Annati, M. (2015). Providing less-lethal add-on capabilities to traditional weapons. Military Technology, 39(11), 54-56.
    2. Fridman, O. (2015). Nonlethal weapons. JFQ: Joint Force Quarterly, (76), 71-77.
    3. Kaurin, P. S. (2015). And next please? The future of the NLW [nonlethal weapons] debate. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 47,217-227.
    4. Murgado, A. (2013, March 6). Less-lethal weapon options. Retrieved from
    5. Meyer, G. (2006, May 19). Nonlethal weapons: Early use means fewer deaths and injuries. Retrieved from
    6. United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. (2011, June 2). Less-lethal technologies. Retrieved May 3, 2016, from

Recommended Reading

Additional Resources