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Emerging Technology in Criminal Justice

Chemical and Biological Defense

Technologies are needed that will better help law enforcement identify an attack by terrorists using chemical or biological weapons and survive that attack. In collaboration with the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG), NIJ is also developing a low-cost, wearable personal alarm to alert first responders to the presence of toxic chemical and biological agents—one of the highest priority practitioner needs identified in NIJ’s 1997 nationwide inventory of State and local law enforcement technology needs to combat terrorism.

Required Reading

Chemical and Biological Defense

  1. Background:
    1. World Health Organization. (2004). Public health response to biological and chemical weapons: WHO guidance. Geneva: World Health Organization.  Retrieved from:
    2. United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency, & Citizen Corps (USA Freedom Corps). (2002). Part 3: Technological Hazards. In Are you ready?  An in-depth guide to citizen preparedness (Vol. 22, IS (Series), pp. 127-144). Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency.  Retrieved from
  2. Resources
    1. Oppenheimer, A. (2012). Equipping the front-line responder. Military Technology, 36(11), 45-48.
    2. Jakupciak, J. P., & Colwell, R. R. (2009). Biological agent detection technologies. Molecular Ecology Resources, 951-57. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0998.2009.02632.x

Recommended Reading

Additional Resources