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IS 1115 TWP: A Library Guide: Evaluating information sources. How Good Is the Evidence?

Information sources establish your credibility. Use the most credible sources that are appropriate for persuading your audience.

Primary means first.  A  primary source is the closest source that is connected to the information

The distinction between primary and secondary may vary depending on the use of the information source.  A newspaper article about Jack the Ripper published in 1888 would have been a secondary source in 1888, but in the present it might be considered primary because of its immediate connection to the event.

 

But in general:

Primary Source / Evidence
The original source  
Secondary / Commentary
Commentary on the original source
Image result for i did it Image result for "he did it"

Journals, letters, diaries, oral histories, autobiographies, artifacts (clothing, furniture, paintings, etc..), written reports of research experiments or studies, public opinion polls, photographs, speeches, laws, works of literature...

Anything that comments on a primary source or actual evidence after the event has taken place. Books, biographies, articles, reviews, commentaries, textbooks, history books, encyclopedias, reference books...

Buckels, E. E., Trapnell, P.D., & Paulhus, D.L. (2004). Trolls just want to have fun.  Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 97-102. Hannan, J. (2018). Trolling ourselves to death? Social media and post-truth politics. European Journal of Communication, 33(2), 214-226.

 

Abstract:

In two online studies (total N = 1215), respondents completed personality inventories and a survey of their Internet commenting styles. Overall, strong positive associations emerged among online commenting frequency, trolling enjoyment, and troll identity, pointing to a common construct underlying the measures. Both studies revealed similar patterns of relations between trolling and the Dark Tetrad of personality: trolling correlated positively with sadism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, using both enjoyment ratings and identity scores. Of all personality measures, sadism showed the most robust associations with trolling and, importantly, the relationship was specific to trolling behavior. Enjoyment of other online activities, such as chatting and debating, was unrelated to sadism. Thus cyber-trolling appears to be an Internet manifestation of everyday sadism.

 

Abstract:

There are at least two ways of framing the problem of post-truth politics. One is to focus on the media, or journalism. A second is to focus on media, or technologies of communication. Between the two, which can be said to be the driver of our post-truth world? This paper follows the second framework, locating the problem of post-truth politics in social media. It further suggests that trolling has gone mainstream, shaping politics and even legislation. Adding a twist to Neil Postman’s (1985) classic thesis, I argue that we are not so much amusing, as trolling ourselves to death.

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Welsh, B. C., Zimmerman, G. M., & Zane, S. N. (2018). The centrality of theory in modern day crime prevention: Developments, challenges, and opportunities. JQ: Justice Quarterly, 35(1), 139-161. doi:10.1080/07418825.2017.1300312

Abstract:

Theory matters in crime prevention. Indeed, but this is hardly the full story.  Crime prevention is oftentimes viewed as atheoretical—not grounded in the etiology of crime and offending. Reasons abound for this view, and the recent interest in an evidence-based approach to policy-making has been at the forefront. This article reviews the role that theory plays in modern day crime prevention, with a special focus on the three main crime prevention strategies: developmental, community, and situational. The review identifies a number of key challenges and opportunities for making theory more central to crime prevention. It suggests that the classification system employed in situational crime prevention has allowed for a more explicit connection between sound theory and prevention techniques, and may provide important lessons for developmental and community crime prevention.
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